Joseph Eggleston Johnston at the Battle of Bull Run
Joseph Eggleston Johnston (1807-1891) was the highest-ranking regular army officer to resign and join the Confederacy; some considered him more capable than Lee. Johnston''s resentment over what he considered men of less experience and ability being given higher rank inhibited his performance during the war. During the winter of 1861-62, he commanded the Department of Northern Virginia and engaged in what critics called a "phony war" with Union commander George B. McClellan. Wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines, he was succeeded by Robert E. Lee and afterward given charge of the Department of the West. After the war, he served in Congress and as a federal railroad commission. He also wrote the controversial Narrative of Military Operations, which was highly critical of Davis and many of the Confederate generals.